The Scopes Monkey Trial
Did you know that 'creationism' was never mentioned at the Scopes trial? There's a lot about the trial you may not know
More than any other event, the 1925 trial in Dayton, Tenn., at which the schoolteacher John Scopes was fined $100 for teaching Darwinian theory in violation of a newly enacted state law, has shaped contemporary American public thinking about the evolution-versus-Genesis debate. And it's amazing how much most people assume about the trial is wrong.
The Scopes trial is best known for pitting William Jennings Bryan, a populist orator and evangelist who was roughly the Billy Graham of his day, against fabled defense attorney Clarence Darrow. Bryan argued that Tennessee's anti-Darwin law should be upheld; Darrow argued for freedom of speech. Scopes was convicted, but his fine was overturned on appeal. Anti-evolution laws were sufficiently discredited by the trial that most were repealed; in 1968, in Epperson v. Arkansas, the Supreme Court ruled that laws against teaching evolution were unconstitutional. Today in journalism and public speaking, the phrase "Scopes monkey trial" is commonly employed as a shorthand way of saying that religion is anti-scientific; in popular culture, the notion has risen that at the Scopes trial, Bible-beating zealots ran amok. But the actualities of the trial do not support this view.
The first point to know is that when Darwin initially aired his thesis, with the 1859 publication of "Origin of Species and the Descent of Man," it sparked a science versus religion controversy in England but not in the United States. Most American faith figures initially did not react against Darwin. Asa Gray, a botanist and devout Christian who was one of Harvard's best-known scientists in the late 19th century, championed Darwin in the United States and wrote that evolution did not conflict with faith; this view was widely accepted.
When "The Fundamentals," a popular series of tracts that sparked the modern American fundamentalist movement, began publication in 1909, most of these works spoke kindly of Darwin, suggesting that evolution helped people understand God's process of creation.
Only in the 1920s did Darwin and religion come into regular conflict in the United States. There were several reasons. One was that paleontologists were beginning to accumulate evidence that human beings descended from earlier primates. Scientific findings of "cave men" were banner headline stories of the time, and though some, notably Piltdown Man, turned out to be hoaxes, some were confirmed as genuine. Although Darwin had openly spoken of "the descent of man" from earlier species, this point had tended not to sink in. While many churchgoers might have been content to believe that the horse evolved from the ancient proto-equus called eohippus, they were less than enthusiastic about evidence that Homo sapiens did not come about in a single divine act of creation. This put opposition to selection theory into play as an American public issue.