The Muslim Marriage Contract
The Qur'an and Sunnah contain all the seeds necessary for Islamic practices. So, what are the rules on marriage contracts?
The basic requirements of a contract are: 1) declaration, 2) capability of the contractees to understand all contract implications, 3) consent of the woman, 4) conclusion resulting from an offer ('ijab) and acceptance (qabul) with two witnesses, 5) and a mahr (dowry).
There may be an immediate mahr, a continuous one during each day, month, year of marriage, and a deferred one upon dissolution of the marriage or death of the husband. If no mahr has been fixed, then the qadi (judge) can fix it as a "mahr al mithl" based on the groom's circumstances and financial capability. Cooperation of a guardian (wali) is necessary, according to most schools of thought, if the bride is a minor virgin, but this is not necessary if she was married previously. In the Shafi' madhab, a contract is defined as a contract between the groom and the wali of the girl, but the wali must be of sound character and be a male ascendant or descendant of the girl from the father's or grandfather's side.
Some prohibitions are a contract: 1) that does not fulfill the legal requirements (i.e. a man who marries a woman on the agreement that she must financially support him); 2) that requires a man to divorce his current wife in order to marry the new wife; 3) that exchanges two daughters in marriage with no mahr for either; 4) that prevents a man from marrying another women; 5) that is concluded while the woman is engaged to another; 6) that concludes a temporary marriage (not jaafari); 7) that is concluded while the woman is in 'iddah (waiting period after divorce or husband's death); 8) that is with: a)a muhrum, blood relative, b)a kafir, c) someone of the same sex, d) your sister's, aunt's, or niece's husband, e) one's milk son, f) a man after he divorces you three times, or g) a man of a different religion unless he converts.
The definition of a valid marriage contract varies in different Muslim countries, but the personal status laws of these countries, while sometimes leaning heavily on Swiss or French civil codes, use Islamic Law as the ultimate reasoning behind rulings given in their courts of law. In the interpretation of shari'ah, three documents are depended upon in most of the Muslim countries except Turkey: 1) Muwatta of Imam Malik, 2) Ottoman Family Rights Law of 1917, and 3) The Mejelle of 1876.
The first laws concerning marriage contract stipulations written at the international level (when the Muslim Khalifate still existed prior to 1917) were part of the Ottoman Family Law, which considered non-compliance with stipulations as grounds for dissolution of the marriage at the instigation of the wife with no penalty on her. After Western powers succeeded in chopping up the Islamic Khalifate into separate "national" states, Jordan, Syria, Iraq, Iran, and Kuwait added other stipulations at the country level. These include: a wife cannot be removed from an agreed-upon locality; the wife has the right to divorce if the husband takes another wife (based on the story in the Muwatta of Imam Malikk about Abdullah bin Umar and Abu Hurairah, concerning a man who authorized his wife for divorce); the wife may work outside the home; and the wife may complete her studies (Kuwait only).