Matrix of Skillful Means

Author Alan Wallace discusses techniques to achieve mindfulness.

Depression Busters

Mindfulness practices do not exist in isolation but are embedded within a matrix of diverse techniques with various purposes and prerequisites. These can be grouped into five primary categories: (1) refining the attention, (2) achieving insight through mindfulness, (3) cultivating a good heart, (4) exploring the ultimate nature of reality, and (5) realizing the Great Perfection—the culmination of the path to enlightenment.

Shamatha: Cultivating Meditative Quiescence and Samadhi

The first of these categories, historically as well as in practice, is meditative quiescence (Skt. shamatha), which is developed by training and refining the attention. The further goal of this contemplative technology is to achieve a state of highly focused and refined attention (Skt. samadhi). A refined mind becomes an accurate instrument for investigating the nature of reality, just as a properly cleaned and calibrated telescope provides the clearest possible observations of the cosmos.

The development of attention was mastered in ancient India, which led the world in formalizing such knowledge. Indian yogis were developing methods to refine their samadhi for hundreds of years before the Buddha’s time. Contemplative practice had become a highly mature and sophisticated matrix of disciplines. These traditions were extensively adapted and developed as they spread throughout Asia, and they represent only one of India’s extraordinary contributions to the world. Many generations of seekers found enormous benefits in extended samadhi practices that reached progressively subtler states. From the beginnings of shamatha, they strove to achieve increasingly refined absorptions in the form realm, where the object of meditation has a form, and in the subtler formless realm.


Mindfulness practice begins with the foundation of shamatha, which supports the development and cultivation of samadhi. In fact, forms of shamatha are found to varying extents in all the world’s great contemplative traditions. Practitioners have long recognized that if one wishes to devote oneself to meditation, the untrained mind presents an obstacle. The ordinary mind alternates between extremes of hyperactive mental activity and collapse into lethargy and sleep. During the daytime, one agitation follows another, and at night we are comatose; the next morning, we repeat the cycle. Ordinary people call it life. Contemplatives have identified it as the normal human condition.

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